• Camiel Hamans Doctor, Professor, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Visiting Professor at Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland
  • Jan Marinus Wiersma Drs., Senior Associate Fellow, Netherlands Institute of International Relations (Clingendael Institute), The Hague, Netherlands
Keywords: European security strategy, multilateralism, Russian colonial empire, new security arrangements, restitution payments


This paper discusses the failures of the European security agenda against Putin’s Russia. It describes how after WWII the world believed in and worked on multilateral cooperation and consultation and how Europe in particular was therefore convinced that peace and security policies should be conducted with soft powers. The remainder of the article then proposes the two pillars on which a new security agenda should be based: multilateralism combined with a deterrent defense. The contribution ends with an epilogue explaining how Russian restitution payments to Ukraine can be made possible.


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How to Cite
Hamans, C., & Wiersma, J. M. (2022). HELSINKI REVISITED: EUROPE’S SECURITY DEFICIT. Strategic Panorama, 127-136.