CULTURAL GENOCIDE AS INTERNATIONAL CRIME COMMITTED BY THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN UKRAINE
This article analyzes acts of destruction of culture and identity of the Ukrainian people by the Russian Federation following the concept of cultural genocide by Raphael Lemkin. The author singles out stages of the implementation of cultural genocide before and during the full-scale invasion of the Russian Federation in Ukraine and illustrates conceptual links between the cultural destruction and physical/biological destruction of the Ukrainian nation.
The acts of cultural genocide, committed by the Russian Federation in Ukraine, are seen as systematic steps to destroy the national culture and identity of the Ukrainian people. These acts have preceded and have been accompanying the acts of physical and biological destruction during the full-scale invasion in 2022. The mechanisms for the destruction of culture and identity of Ukrainians as a national group include: the appropriation or destruction of cultural heritage and historical memory, the targeted persecution of pro-Ukrainian activists, the imposition of Russia’s education system in temporarily occupied territories and the segregation of residents of the occupied territories from Ukraine’s information space. The author argues that it is necessary to take into account acts of cultural genocide for further qualification of crimes committed by the Russian Federation in Ukraine as genocide and bring it to justice for the crime of genocide by international and national law. To facilitate these processes, there is a need for further establishment of the recognition of crimes of cultural genocide in the system of international law.
Bilsky, L. & Klagsbrun, R. (2018, May). The Return of Cultural Genocide? European Journal of International Law. Vol. 29, Issue 2, рр. 73–396. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejil/chy025
Davidavičiūtė, R. (2020, August). Cultural Heritage, Genocide, and Normative Agency. Journal of Applied Philosophy. Vol. 38, No. 4. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/346147357_Cultural_Heritage_Genocide_and_Normative_Agency
Defence Intelligence of Ukraine. (2022, March 24). The occupying forces seize and destroy Ukrainian literature and history textbooks. Defence Intelligence of the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine: Official site. https://gur.gov.ua/content/okupatsiini-viiska-vyluchaiut-ta-znyshchuiut-ukrainsku-literaturu-ta-pidruchnyky-istorii.html [in Ukrainian].
Educational Ombudsman of Ukraine. (2022, April 06). Educators in the temporarily occupied territories need state support. Educational Ombudsman of Ukraine: Official site. https://eo.gov.ua/osvitiany-na-tymchasovo-okupovanykh-terytoriiakh-potrebuiut-pidtrymky-derzhavy/2022/04/06/ [in Ukrainian].
Fox, A. (2021). Russo-Ukrainian Patterns of Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Journal of Strategic Security, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 56–71. https://digitalcommons.usf.edu/jss/vol14/iss4/4
Hiebert, M., Totten, S., Anderson, K., Bachman, J., Williams, T., Buckley-Zistel, S., Harff, B., & Gurr, T. (2019). Cultural Genocide Law, Politics, and Global Manifestations. Edited by Jeffrey S. Bachman. Canada, University of British Columbia in Kelowna. https://library.oapen.org/bitstream/id/78091ce3-9084-4246-ae65-785f5d3ab315/9781351214094.pdf
Hudson, E. (2021, May 08). The Cultural Genocide of the Indigenous People of North America. Native American Genocides. https://www.academia.edu/48889198/Indigenous_Cultural_Genocide
IMI. (2022, April 25). Russia committed 243 crimes against journalists and media in Ukraine in two months. [IMI monitoring data]. Institute of Mass Information: Official site. https://imi.org.ua/monitorings/243-zlochyny-proty-zhurnalistiv-ta-media-skoyila-rosiya-v-ukrayini-za-dva-misyatsi-vijny-i45175 [in Ukrainian].
Kinakh, M. (2022, May 05). Russian crimes in Ukraine: problems of their qualification as genocide. Ûridična gazeta. https://yur-gazeta.com/golovna/rosiyski-zlochini-v-ukrayini-problemi-yih-kvalifikaciyi-yak-genocidu.html [in Ukrainian].
Laruelle, M. (2021, April). Soft power of Russia: sources, goals and channels of influence. Russie.NEI.Visions, 122, 34 p. IFRI. https://www.ifri.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/laruelle_russia_soft_power_ru_2021.pdf [in Russian].
Lemkin, R. (1933). Acts Constituting a General (Transnational) Danger Considered as Offences Against the Law of Nations. Additional explications to the Special Report presented to the 5th Conference for the Unification of Penal Law in Madrid. October 14–20. http://www.preventgenocide.org/lemkin/madrid1933-english.htm
Lemkin, R. (1944). Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation. Analysis of Government – Proposals for Redress. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, pp. 79–95. http://www.preventgenocide.org/lemkin/AxisRule1944-1.htm
Lemkin, R. (1945, April). Genocide – A Modern Crime. Free World. Vol. 4, pр. 39–43. http://www.preventgenocide.org/lemkin/freeworld1945.htm
Lemkin, R. (1946, April). Genocide. American Scholar. Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 227–230. http://www.preventgenocide.org/lemkin/americanscholar1946.htm
Lemkin, R. (2009). Soviet Genocide in Ukraine. Ed. R. Serbyn, compil. O. Stasiuk. Kyiv: Maisternia knyhy, 208 p. https://holodomormuseum.org.ua/publikacija/radyanskiy-genocid-v-ukraini/ [in Ukrainian].
Luck, E. C. (2018). Cultural Genocide and the Protection of Cultural Heritage. Los Angeles. Published by Getty Publications, No. 2. https://www.getty.edu/publications/occasional-papers-2/
Mako, Sh. (2012, June 18). Cultural Genocide and Key International Instruments: Framing the Indigenous Experience. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2087175
MCIP. (2022, May 14). Ministry of Culture and Information Policy continues to document Russian war crimes against cultural heritage. Ministry of Culture and Information Policy of Ukraine: Official site. https://mkip.gov.ua/news/7142.html [in Ukrainian].
Novic, E. (2016). The concept of cultural genocide: an international law perspective. Oxford : Oxford University Press (Cultural Heritage Law and Policy). http://hdl.handle.net/1814/43864
Rashevska, K. (2022, May 02) Ethnocide and cultural genocide in Crimea: fiction or objective reality? Kultura. Holos Krymu. https://culture.voicecrimea.com.ua/uk/etnotsyd-ta-kulturnyj-henotsyd-u-krymu-vyhadky-chy-ob-iektyvna-realnist/ [in Ukrainian].
Weiss, T. G., & Connelly, N. (2017). Mass Atrocities Protecting Cultural Heritage in Armed Conflict Zones. Los Angeles J. Paul Getty Trust. No. 1. https://www.getty.edu/publications/pdfs/CulturalCleansing_Weiss_Connelly.pdf
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.