MIGRATION AND CORONACRISIS: CONSEQUENCES, PROSPECTS, DIRECTIONS OF RESPONSE

Keywords: migration, coronacrisis, transformation of migration processes, migration policy.

Abstract

Labor migration abroad has a significant impact on the socio-economic and demographic development of Ukraine. Therefore, awareness of the consequences of the pandemic for migration processes, taking into account the migration component in developing a strategy for overcoming the crisis is extremely important. The article focuses on finding the key answers to adequately respond to migration challenges. The question is: ‘How does the crisis affect the situation of migrants? How does the crisis affect the intensity and direction of migration flows? How will these changes affect the development of the Ukrainian economy and society?’ There is not enough data on the dynamics of modern international migration. Therefore, the review of the hypothetical migration situation, as well as the development of recommendations for possible policy solutions, are based not only on their analysis, but also on generalizing the effects of previous economic crises on migration processes, identification and extrapolation to modern realities of their essential characteristics.

During the crisis, the demand for additional labor from abroad is declining, but this leads not so much to the return of migrants to their homeland, as to a decrease in emigration, but rather to its postponement. Not all countries and not all sectors of the economy are experiencing the crisis in the same way, so there is a flow of migrants from one area of employment to another, from the most affected by the crisis countries to more prosperous. It is not so much the power of migration flows that changes, but their direction and characteristics.

The return of migrants to Ukraine has not become widespread, it is only temporary, moreover, if the economic situation in the country will deteriorate, and in the countries of destination economic recovery will be successful, labor migration may intensify. Given the continuing labor migration from Ukraine, the state should significantly intensify its efforts to protect the rights and interests of Ukrainian citizens abroad. It is necessary to ensure access of migrants to medical services, social assistance, unemployment benefits, etc., to intensify the negotiation process with the countries of residence of migrant workers. Particular attention needs to be paid to supporting the repatriation flow, which can help reduce the shortage of workers needed by the economy, to serve a faster way out of the crisis.

References

World Bank. Global Economic Prospects. (2020, June). Worldbank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/ handle/10986/33748 [in English].

ILO Monitor: COVID-19 and the world of work. Fifth edition. (n.d.). ILO. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://www. ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@dgreports/@dcomm/documents/briefingnote/wcms_749399.pdf [in English].

One third of Ukrainians in Poland have lost or restricted their jobs due to the coronavirus. (2020, March 31). Ukrainian Truth. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2020/03/31/7245870/ [in Ukrainian].

Welcome Home? Challenges and Chances of Return Migration. (n.d.). GMFUS. http://www.gmfus.org/publications/ welcome-home-challenges-and-chances-return-migration [in English].

Levchenko, K., et al. (2010). «Ukrainian Greece» reasons, problems, prospects (according to the labour migrants’ interview results). Kyiv [in English].

Parademetriou, D., & Terrazas, A. (n.d.). Immigrants and the Current Economic Crisis: Research Evidence, Policy Challenges, and Implications. MPI. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/ immigrants-and-current-economic-crisis-research-evidence-policy-challenges-and-implications [in English].

OECD. International migration outlook, 2009. (2009). OECD. https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration- health/international-migration-outlook-2009_migr_outlook-2009-en#page6 [in English].

OECD. Managing international migration under COVID-19. (n.d.). OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy- responses/managing-international-migration-under-covid-19-6e914d57/ [in English].

Decision of the Government of Portugal on the legalization of foreigners in a state of emergency. (n.d.). Consulate of Ukraine in Porto: official site. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://porto.mfa.gov.ua/news/rishennya-uryadu- portugaliyi-shchodo-legalizuye-inozemciv-v-umovah-nadzvichajnogo-stanu [in Ukrainian].

Migrant workers in Italy: who and how can be legalized? (n.d.). Radio Svoboda. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https:// www.radiosvoboda.org/a/trudovi-migranty-v-italiyi/30635142.html [in Ukrainian].

Banakhevych, Yu. (2020). Poland is thinking about how to return labor migrants from Ukraine. Ukrinform. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://www.ukrinform.ua/rubric-world/3010104-u-polsi-dumaut-ak-povernuti-trudovih- migrantiv-z-ukraini.html [in Ukrainian].

Lesińska, М. (n.d.). The Dilemmas of Policy towards Return Migration. The Case of Poland after the EU Accession. CEEMR. http://www.ceemr.uw.edu.pl/vol-2-no-1-june-2013/articles/dilemmas-policy-towards-return-migration- case-poland-after-eu [in English].

Parademetriou, D., et al. (n.d.). Migration and Economic Downturn. Migrationpolicy. https://migrationpolicy.org/ transatlantic/ EU_Recession_backgrounder.pdf [in English].

NBU. NBU Inflation report. (2020, April). NBU. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://bank.gov.ua/admin_uploads/ article/IR_2020-Q2.pdf?v=4 [in Ukrainian].

External Labour Migration in Ukraine as a Factor in Socio-Demographic and Economic Development. (n.d.). CARIM- East. http://www.carim-east.eu/media/CARIM-East-2012-RR-14.pdf [in English].

Ukrainians living in Poland feel the effects of the coronavirus epidemic acutely. (n.d.). Wirtualnemedia. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://www.wirtualnemedia.pl/artykul/ukraincy-mieszkajacy-w-polsce-dotkliwie-odczuwaja- skutki-epidemii-koronawirusa [in Polish].

From Poland to Alaska: how Lviv residents go to work even during a pandemic. (2020, July 24). Espreso.TV. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://espreso.tv/article/2020/07/24/vid_polschi_do_alyasky_yak_lvivyany_yidut_na_zarobitky_ navit_pid_chas_pandemiyi [in Ukrainian].

Ukrainian workers are ready to return to work in Poland. Research. (n.d.). VSETUTPL.com. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from http://vsetutpl.com/ukrayinski-zarobitchany-gotovi-povertatys-na-robotu-v-polschu-doslidzhennya [in Ukrainian].

Published
2021-12-07
How to Cite
Malynovska, O. (2021). MIGRATION AND CORONACRISIS: CONSEQUENCES, PROSPECTS, DIRECTIONS OF RESPONSE. Strategic Panorama, (1-2), 71-79. https://doi.org/10.53679/2616-9460.1-2.2021.05